SANS Digital Forensics and Incident Response Blog: Tag - lsof

When "Redundant" Yields Different Results

by Hal Pomeranz, Deer Run Associates

One question that often comes up with I'm talking about Digital Forensics in SANS Sec506 is, "There are so many ways to get at the same data on a Linux/Unix system, which method should we choose?" My response is, "All of them." And then I show them this little example to explain why.

Let's take the case of active network connections on the system. There are all sorts of ways to get at this data, including "lsof" and "netstat":

# lsof -i :22
# netstat -anp | grep :22
tcp 0 0* LISTEN -

This is definitely a


Recovering Open But Unlinked File Data

By Hal Pomeranz, Deer Run Associates

If you've ever been a Unix system administrator, you may have encountered "open but unlinked" files in the course of your normal duties. The typical scenario is a user who's launched a process that creates an unexpectedly large output file which consumes all of the free space in the partition. In a panic, the user deletes the output file but leaves the process running. Unfortunately, the operating system is not allowed to reclaim the space until the last process that has the output file open actually exits. So until the user kills their process, the space is still in use and the file system is full. But when you as the system administrator logs in to free some space in the partition, you're unable to find the massive file that's consuming all of the space with your normal file system