Community: Whitepapers


SANS Forensics Whitepapers

White Papers are an excellent source for information gathering, problem-solving and learning. Below is a list of White Papers written by forensic practitioners seeking GCFA, GCFE, and GREM Gold. SANS attempts to ensure the accuracy of information, but papers are published "as is".

Errors or inconsistencies may exist or may be introduced over time. If you suspect a serious error, please contact

Note: if you are using Google Chrome, you may experience difficulty downloading the white papers. Until we are able to resolve the issue, please use a different browser than Chrome to view these papers.

SANS Forensics Whitepapers
Paper Author Cert
Analysis of a Multi-Architecture SSH Linux Backdoor Angel Alonso-Parrizas GREM
Forensicator FATE - From Artisan To Engineer Barry Anderson GCFA
Report on the Forensic Analysis of a recovered Floppy Disk Steve Armstrong GCFA
Open Source Forensic Analysis - Windows 2000 Server - Andre Arnes GCFA
Incident Response in Amazon EC2: First Responders Guide to Security Incidents in the Cloud Tom Arnold GCFE
GIAC GREM Assignment - Pass James Balcik GREM
On the x86 Representation of Object Oriented Programming Concepts for Reverse Engineers Jason Batchelor GREM
Forensic Analysis of a USB Flash Drive Norrie Bennie GCFA
Forensic Analysis of a Windows 2000 server with IIS and Oracle Beth Binde GCFA
Forensic Analysis Think pad 600 laptop running Windows 2000 server Brad Bowers GCFA
Validation of Restorer 2000 Pro v1.1 (Build 110621) Denis Brooker GCFA
Using Image Excerpts to Jumpstart Windows Forensic Analysis John Brown GCFA
Validation of Norton Ghost 2003 John Brozycki GCFA
Analysis on a compromised Linux RedHat 8.0 Honeypot Jeff Bryner GCFA
Birthday Hunting Jack Burgess GCFA
Analyzing a Binary File and File Partitions for Forensic Evidence James Butler GCFA
GIAC GREM Assignment - Pass David Chance GREM
Building an Automated Behavioral Malware Analysis Environment using Open Source Software Jim Clausing GREM
Validation of Process Accounting Records Jim Clausing GCFA
A Regular Expression Search Primer for Forensic Analysts Timothy Cook GCFA
ATT&CK-Based Live Response for GCP CentOS Instances Allen L. Cox GCFA
Forensic Analysis on a Windows 2000 Pro Workstation David Cragg GCFA
Intelligence-Driven Incident Response with YARA Ricardo Dias GCFA
A Forensic Look at Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Michael Doran GCFA
Unpacking & Decrypting FlawedAmmyy Michael Downey GREM
Insider Threat The Theft of Intellectual Property in Windows 10 Eduard Du Plessis GCFE
Leveraging the PE Rich Header for Static M alware D etection and Linking Maksim Dubyk GREM
CC Terminals, Inc.Forensic Examination Report: Examination of a USB Hard Drive Brent Duckworth GCFA
Automation of Report and Timeline-file based file and URL analysis Florian Eichelberger GCFA
Evidence of Data Exfiltration via Containerised Applications on Virtual Private Servers Seth Enoka GCFE
Detection of Backdating the System Clock in Windows Xiaoxi Fan GCFE
CC Terminals Harassment Case Dean Farrington GCFA
Forensic Tool Evaluation-MiTeC Registry File Viewer Kevin Fiscus GCFA
Forensic Timeline Analysis using Wireshark GIAC (GCFA) Gold Certification David Fletcher GCFA
Forensic Analysis of Industrial Control Systems Lewis Folkerth GCFA
Forensic Analysis of a SQL Server 2005 Database Server Kevvie Fowler GCFA
Forensic analysis of a Compromised Windows 2000 workstation Charles Fraser GCFA
Creating a Baseline of Process Activity for Memory Forensics Gordon Fraser GCFA
GIAC GREM Assignment - Pass Joe Fresch GREM
Sys Admins and Hackers/Analysis of a hacked system Lars Fresen GCFA
Dead Linux Machines Do Tell Tales James Fung GCFA
Analysis of a Suspect Red Hat Linux 6.1 System James Fung GCFA
Windows Logon Forensics Sunil Gupta GCFA
Digital Forensic Analysis of Amazon Linux EC2 Instances Kenneth Hartman GCFA
Analysis of an unknown USB JumpDrive image Roger Hiew GCFA
Analysis of a Linux Honeypot Tyler Hudak GCFA
GIAC GREM Assignment - Pass Lorna Hutcheson GREM
Using Virtualization in Internal Forensic Training and Assessment Courtney Imbert GCFA
Straddling the Next Frontier Part 2: How Quantum Computing has already begun impacting the Cyber Security landscape Eric Jodoin GCFA
IDS File Forensics George Khalil GCFA
Threat Hunting and Incident Response in a post-compromised environment Rukhsar Khan GCFA
Forensication Education: Towards a Digital Forensics Instructional Framework Rick Kiper GCFE
Pick a Tool, the Right Tool: Developing a Practical Typology for Selecting Digital Forensics Tools Rick Kiper GCFA
Filesystem Timestamps: What Makes Them Tick? Tony Knutson GCFA
Windows 10 as a Forensic Platform Ferenc Kovacs GCFA
Automated Detection and Disinfection of Ransomware Attacks using Roadblock Software Hemant Kumar GREM
Comprehensive Blended Malware Threat Dissection Analyze Fake Anti-Virus Software and PDF Payloads Anthony Cheuk Tung Lai GREM
Analysis of a Potentially Misused Windows 95 System Gregory Leibolt GCFA
GIAC GREM Assignment - Pass Gregory Leibolt GREM
A Detailed Analysis of an Advanced Persistent Threat Malware Frankie Fu Kay Li GREM
Windows ShellBag Forensics in Depth Vincent Lo GCFA
Using IOC (Indicators of Compromise) in Malware Forensics Hun Ya Lock GREM
Disrupting the Empire: Identifying PowerShell Empire Command and Control Activity Michael Long II GCFA
Forensic Analysis of a compromised Sun Ultra 5 workstation Carl Madzelan GCFA
Camouflaged and Attacked? Bertha Marasky GCFA
Forensic Analysis Procedures of a Compromised system using Encase Jeffrey McGurk GCFA
Investigative Forensic Workflow-based Case Study for Vectra and Cyphort Jennifer Mellone GCFE
Discovery Of A Rootkit: A simple scan leads to a complex solution John Melvin GCFA
Forensic analysis of a compromised Linux RedHat 7.3 system Kevin Miller GCFA
Practical Process Analysis Automating Process Log Analysis with PowerShell Matt Moore GCFA
Reverse Engineering of WannaCry Worm and Anti Exploit Snort Rules Hirokazu Murakami GREM
Portable System for Network Forensics Data Collection and Analysis Don Murdoch GCFA
Analysis of a Honeypot running Red Hat Linux 6.2 Keven Murphy GCFA
Live Response Using PowerShell Sajeev Nair GCFA
Analysis of a Commercial Keylogger installed on multiple systems Merlin Namuth GCFA
Developing a JavaScript Deobfuscator in .NET Roberto Nardella GREM
Taking advantage of Ext3 journaling file system in a forensic investigation Gregorio Narvaez GCFA
Clash of the Titans: ZeuS v SpyEye Harshit Nayyar GREM
An Opportunity In Crisis Harshit Nayyar GREM
Ubuntu Artifacts Generated by the Brian Nishida GCFA
Forensic Analysis of a Compromised Intranet Server Roberto Obialero GCFA
Grow Your Own Forensic Tools: A Taxonomy of Python Libraries Helpful for Forensic Analysis Terrence OConnor GCFA
Forensic with Open-Source Tools and Platform: USB Flash Drive Image Forensic Analysis Leonard Ong GCFA
Forensic Analysis of dual bootable Operating System (OS) running a default Red Hat 6.2 Linux server installation and Windows 98 Mohd Shukri Othman GCFA
Analysis and Comparison of Red Hat Linux 6.2 Honeypots With & Without LIDS-enabled Kernels Greg Owen GCFA
Loki-Bot: Information Stealer, Keylogger, & More! Rob Pantazopoulos GREM
Safe at Home? David Perez GCFA
Exploring the Effectiveness of Approaches to Discovering and Acquiring Virtualized Servers on ESXi Scott Perry GCFE
ATT&CKing Threat Management: A Structured Methodology for Cyber Threat Analysis Andy Piazza GCFA
A Journey into Litecoin Forensic Artifacts Daniel Piggott GCFA
Bug Bounty Programs: Enterprise Implementation Jason Pubal GCFA
A Forensic Analysis of the Encrypting File System Ramprasad Ramshankar GCFE
Putting it all together through Automation Kenneth Ray GCFE
Lessons from a Linux Compromise John Ritchie GCFA
Indicators of Compromise in Memory Forensics Chad Robertson GCFA
Analysis of a Windows XP Professional compromised system Manuel Humberto Santander Pelaez GCFA
Conf, Is it Ever Really Gone? The Impact of Private Browsing and Anti-Forensic Tools Rick Schroeder GCFE
Enhancing incident response through forensic, memory analysis and malware sandboxing techniques Wylie Shanks GCFA
Forensic analysis of a Windows 98 system Jerry Shenk GCFA
Analysis of a Red Hat Honeypot James Shewmaker GCFA
GIAC GREM Assignment - Pass James Shewmaker GREM
Reverse Engineering the Microsoft exFAT File System Robert Shullich GCFA
HONORS-Analysis of a USB Flashdrive Image Raul Siles GCFA
Analysis of a Suspect Red Hat Linux 6.2 System Ray Strubinger GCFA
Hunting for Ghosts in Fileless Attacks Buddy Tancio GCFA
Repurposing Network Tools to Inspect File Systems Andre Thibault GCFA
Forensic Images: For Your Viewing Pleasure Sally Vandeven GCFA
Forensic Analysis of a Compromised NT Server(Phishing) Andres Velazquez GCFA
Reverse Engineering msrll.exe Rick Wanner GREM
Tor Browser Artifacts in Windows 10 Aron Warren GCFA
Forensic Analysis of an EBay acquired Drive Daniel Wesemann GCFA
How not to use a rootkit Mike Wilson GCFA
Forensic Validity of Netcat Michael Worman GCFA
Artificial Intelligence and Law Enforcement John Wulff GCFA
Binary Analysis, Forensics and Legal Issues Michael Wyman GCFA
Building a Malware Zoo Joel Yonts GREM
Mac OS X Malware Analysis Joel Yonts GCFA
Case Study: 2012 DC3 Digital Forensic Challenge Basic Malware Analysis Exercise Kenneth Zahn GREM